Category Archives: Ethics

Thought Experiments

Publications pertinent to thought experiments include: Thought Experiments in Methodological and Historical Contexts edited by Katerina Ierodiakonou and Sophie Roux, Thought Experiments by Roy A. Sorensen, Thought Experiments by James Robert Brown and Yiftach Fehige, Thought Experiments by Tamar S. Gendler, Thought Experiments: Determining their Meaning by Igal Galili, Thought Experiments in Science and Philosophy by Tamara Horowitz and Gerald Massey and Thought Experiments in Science, Philosophy, and Mathematics by James R. Brown.

Publications pertinent to thought experiments, epistemology and imagination include: An Epistemological Role for Thought Experiments by Michael Bishop, Imagination and Epistemology by Jonathan Ichikawa, Imagination and Insight: A New Account of the Content of Thought Experiments by Letitia Meynell, When an Image Turns Into Knowledge: The Role of Visualization in Thought Experimentation by Miriam Reiner and John Gilbert, Interrogation of a Dynamic Visualization During Learning by Richard K. Lowe, Imagery and Mental Processes by Allan Paivio, Dynamics of Brain Processing During Mental Imagery by Livia Tomova, Voluntary and Automatic Attentional Control of Visual Working Memory by Brandon K. Schmidt, Geoffrey F. Woodman, Edward K. Vogel and Steven J. Luck, Perceptual Simulation in Conceptual Tasks by Lawrence W. Barsalou, Karen O. Solomon and Ling-Ling Wu, Situated Simulation in the Human Conceptual System by Lawrence W. Barsalou, Using Imagination to Understand the Neural Basis of Episodic Memory by Demis Hassabis, Dharshan Kumaran and Eleanor A. Maguire and Episodic and Semantic Memory by Endel Tulving.

Publications pertinent to thought experiments and argumentation include: Why Thought Experiments are not Arguments by Michael A. Bishop, On Thought Experiments: Is There More to the Argument? by John D. Norton and Intuition Pumps and the Proper Use of Thought Experiments by Elke Brendel.

Publications pertinent to mathematical thought experiments, argumentation and creativity include: Deiknymi by Jan Gonda, On the First Greek Mathematical Proof by Vassilis Karasmanis, On Mathematical Thought Experiments by Marco Buzzoni, Thought Experimentation and Mathematical Innovation by Eduard Glas, The Varieties of Mathematical Explanation by Paolo Mancosu and Johannes Hafner, The Meaning of Proof in Mathematics Education by David A. Reid, Proof and Proving in Mathematics Education by Maria A. Mariotti, The Role of Mental Argumentation in Mathematics Vis-à-vis Property Perception and the Operational Mode by Joanna Mamona-Downs, Necessary Realignments from Mental Argumentation to Proof Presentation by Joanna Mamona-Downs and Martin Downs, Representation of Mathematical Concepts for Inferencing and for Presentation Purposes by Martin Pollet, Andreas Franke, Armin Fiedler, Helmut Horacek, Markus Moschner and Volker Sorge, Making Actions in the Proving Process Explicit, Visible, and “Reflectable” by Kerry McKee, Milos Savic, John Selden and Annie Selden, Granularity-adaptive Proof Presentation by Christoph Benzmüller and Marvin Schiller and Interpretation of Scientific or Mathematical Concepts: Cognitive Issues and Instructional Implications by Frederick Reif.

Publications pertinent to thought experiments and science include: Tracing the Development of Thought Experiments in the Philosophy of the Natural Sciences by Aspasia S. Moue, Kyriakos A. Masavetas and Haido Karayianni, Thought Experiment in the Natural Sciences by Marco Buzzoni, Galileo and the Indispensability of Scientific Thought Experiment by Tamar S. Gendler, Thought Experiments Since the Scientific Revolution by James R. Brown, Thought Experiments in Scientific Reasoning by Andrew D. Irvine, The Role of Imagistic Simulation in Scientific Thought Experiments by John J. Clement, The Nature and Role of Thought Experiments in Solving Conceptual Physics Problems by Şule Dönertaş Kösem and Ömer Faruk Özdemir, The Evidential Significance of Thought Experiment in Science by James W. McAllister, Why Thought Experiments do not Transcend Empiricism by John D. Norton, Experimentation and the Meaning of Scientific Concepts by Theodore Arabatzis, Thought Experiments and Physics Education by Hugh Helm, John Gilbert and D. Michael Watts, The Context of Thought Experiments in Physics Learning by Miriam Reiner, Thought Experiments in Science and in Science Education by Mervi A. Asikainen and Pekka E. Hirvonen, Thought Experiments in Science Education: Potential and Current Realization by John K. Gilbert and Miriam Reiner, Understanding and Teaching Important Scientific Thought Processes by Frederick Reif, Visualization: A Metacognitive Skill in Science and Science Education by John K. Gilbert, Prospects for Scientific Visualization as an Educational Technology by Douglas N. Gordin and Roy D. Pea and Mental Models: Theoretical Issues for Visualizations in Science Education by David N. Rapp.

Publications pertinent to thought experiments and mental models: Mental Models and Thought Experiments by Nenad Miščević, Thought Experiments and Conceptual Revision by Ian Winchester, Mental Models, Conceptual Models, and Modelling by Ileana M. Greca and Marco A. Moreira, Model Building for Conceptual Change by David Jonassen, Johannes Strobel and Joshua Gottdenker, Model-based Reasoning in Conceptual Change by Nancy J. Nersessian, Mental Modeling in Conceptual Change by Nancy J. Nersessian and Thought Experiments and the Belief in Phenomena by James W. McAllister.

Publications pertinent to thought experiments, linguistics and pragmatics include: Thought Experiments in Linguistics by Sarah G. Thomason, Data and Evidence in Linguistics: A Plausible Argumentation Model by András Kertész and Csilla R. Kosi, From Thought Experiments to Real Experiments in Pragmatics by András Kertész and Ferenc Kiefer, The Puzzle of Thought Experiments in Conceptual Metaphor Research by András Kertész and Pragmatic Evidence, Context, and Story Design: An Essay on Recent Developments in Experimental Pragmatics by Jörg Meibauer.

Publications pertinent to thought experiments and philosophy include: Thought Experiments in Philosophy by Soren Haggqvist, Philosophical Thought Experiments, Intuitions, and Cognitive Equilibrium by Tamar S. Gendler, Intuition, Imagination, and Philosophical Methodology by Tamar S. Gendler and Philosophical Thought Experiments as Excercises in Conceptual Analysis by Christian Nimtz.

Publications pertinent to thought experiments and ethics include: The Gedankenexperiment Method of Ethics by Michael W. Jackson, The Role of Imaginary Cases in Ethics by Jonathan Dancy and Variations in Ethical Intuitions by Jennifer L. Zamzow and Shaun Nichols.

Publications pertinent to thought experiments and narrative include: Thought Experiments, Hypotheses, and Cognitive Dimension of Literary Fiction by Iris Vidmar, Thought Experiments and Fictional Narratives by David Davies, Fiction as Thought Experiment by Catherine Z. Elgin, Narrative Experiments and Imaginative Inquiry by Noel Gough and The Call of Stories: Teaching and the Moral Imagination by Robert Coles.


Interactive Narrative and Morality

Publications pertinent to narrative and moral imagination include: The Moral Psychology of Fiction by Gregory Currie, The Use of Stories in Moral Development: New Psychological Reasons for an Old Education Method by Paul C. Vitz, Life Lessons Through Storytelling: Children’s Exploration of Ethics by Donna Eder, Narrative Imagination: Between Ethics and Poetics by Richard Kearney, Empathic Engagement with Narrative Fictions by Amy Coplan, Moral Appraisal and Emotions by Cristina Battaglino, Rossana Damiano and Leonardo Lesmo, Emotional Appraisal of Moral Dilemma in Characters by Cristina Battaglino and Rossana Damiano, The Role of Morality in Emotional Reactions to and Enjoyment of Media Entertainment by Arthur A. Raney, Narrative Identity and Moral Identity: A Practical Perspective by Kim Atkins, The Development of Moral Imagination by Dennis J. Moberg and Mark A. Seabright, Phenomenology and the Moral Imagination by Terrence Wright and Moral Imagination: Implications of Cognitive Science for Ethics by Mark Johnson.

Publications pertinent to argumentation and narrative include: Arguing with Stories by Floris Bex and Trevor Bench-Capon, Understanding Narratives with Argumentation by Floris Bex and Trevor Bench-Capon, Values as the Point of a Story by Floris Bex, Logic and Parables: Do These Narratives Provide Arguments? by Trudy Govier and Lowell Ayers, Persuasive Stories for Multi-Agent Argumentation by Floris Bex and Trevor Bench-Capon, Legal Stories and the Process of Proof by Floris Bex and Bart Verheij, The Narrative Dimension by Ephraim Nissan, Analysis of Legal Narratives: A Conceptual Framework by Giovanni Sileno, Alexander Boer and Tom van Engers and Narration as a Human Communication Paradigm: The Case of Public Moral Argument by Walter R. Fisher.

Publications pertinent to morality, moral education and interactive digital entertainment include: Teaching Ethics through Gaming Environments: Design, Development and Research Perspectives by Karen Schrier, David Gibson, David Shaenfield, David Simkins and Jose Zagal, Ethical Reflection and Emotional Involvement in Computer Games by Kirsten Pohl, Moral Dilemmas in Computer Games by Miguel Sicart, Moral Dilemmas in Serious Games by Jacqueline Krebs, Effects of Narrative Structure and Salient Decision Points in Role Playing Games by Christopher Moser and Xiaowen Fang, Narrative Control and Player Experience in Role Playing Games: Decision Points and Branching Narrative Feedback by Christopher Moser and Xiaowen Fang, Moral Dilemmas in Role Playing Digital Games by Cristina Battaglino and Generating Stories with Morals by Margaret Sarlej and Malcolm Ryan.

Publications pertinent to moral digital characters include: Introducing PETE: Computer Support for Teaching Ethics by Ilya M. Goldin, Kevin D. Ashley and Rosa L. Pinkus, AEINS: Adaptive Educational Interactive Narrative System to Teach Ethics by Rania Hodhod, Daniel Kudenko and Paul Cairns, Machine Ethics: Creating an Ethical Intelligent Agent by Michael Anderson and Susan L. Anderson, Agents with a Moral Dimension by Cristina Battaglino, Agents Making Moral Decisions by Jaspreet Shaheed and Jim Cunningham, Moral Competence in Social Robots by Bertram F. Malle and Matthias Scheutz, Toward Machines That Behave Ethically Better than Humans Do by Matthijs A. Pontier and Johan F. Hoorn, On How to Build a Moral Machine by Paul Bello and Selmer Bringsjord, Towards Machine Ethics: Implementing Two Action-based Ethical Theories by Michael Anderson, Susan L. Anderson and Chris Armen and An Architecture for Directing Value-driven Artificial Characters by Rossana Damiano and Vincenzo Lombardo.

Publications pertinent to computational approaches to theory of mind include: Developmental Accounts of Theory-of-mind Acquisition: Achieving Clarity via Computational Cognitive Modeling by Paul Bello and Nicholas Cassimatis, Towards a Theory of Mind for Ethical Software Agents by Catriona Kennedy, Modeling Agents with a Theory of Mind by Maaike Harbers, Karel van den Bosch and John-Jules Meyer, Double Appraisal for Synthetic Characters by Sandy Louchart, Ruth Aylett and Joao Dias, If I Were You: Double Appraisal in Affective Agents by Ruth Aylett and Sandy Louchart, Modeling Agents with a Theory of Mind: Theory–theory versus Simulation Theory by Maaike Harbers, Karel van den Bosch and John-Jules Meyer, Cognitive Foundations for a Computational Theory of Mindreading by Paul Bello, Reasoning about Reasoning by Nested Conditioning: Modeling Theory of Mind with Probabilistic Programs by Andreas Stuhlmüller and N. D. Goodman and Bayesian Theory of Mind: Modeling Human Reasoning about Beliefs, Desires, Goals, and Social Relations by Chris L. Baker.

Publications pertinent to morality and moral development include: Conscience: The Mechanism of Morality by Jeffrey White, Conscience in Childhood: Past, Present, and Future by Grazyna Kochanska and Nazan Aksan, Social Cognitive Theory of Moral Thought and Action by Albert Bandura, Moral Development: Advances in Research and Theory by James R. Rest and Robert Barnett, Development in Judging Moral Issues by James R. Rest, The Relation between Moral Judgment and Behavior: A Social-cognitive and Decision-making Analysis by Herbert D. Saltzstein, Testing a Social-Cognitive Model of Moral Behavior: The Interactive Influence of Situations and Moral Identity Centrality by Karl Aquino, Dan Freeman, Americus Reed II, Vivien K. G. Lim, Will Felps, The Role of Mental State Understanding in the Development of Moral Cognition and Moral Action by Jodie A. Baird and Janet Wilde Astington, The Zone of Proximal Development in Play and Learning by Pentti Hakkarainen and Milda Bredikyte and Moral Education in the Zone of Proximal Development by Mark B. Tappan.

Publications pertinent to ethics education include: Evaluating Ethics Education Programs: A Multi-level Approach by Michael D. Mumford, Logan Steele and Logan L. Watts, The Effects of Classroom Moral Discussion upon Children’s Level of Moral Judgment by Moshe M. Blatt and Lawrence Kohlberg, The Effects of Unstructured Group Discussion on Ethical Judgment by Clinton H. Richards and G. Stoney Alder, Moral Cognition and Moral Action: A Theoretical Perspective by Augusto Blasi and Bridging Moral Cognition and Moral Action: A Critical Review of the Literature by Augusto Blasi.

Play, Development, Reasoning, Language, Mimesis and Education

Publications pertinent to play, evolution and development, include: Play: Its Role in Development and Evolution by Jerome S. Bruner, Alison Jolly and Kathy Sylva, Play and Exploration in Children and Animals by Thomas G. Power, The Role of Play in Human Development by Anthony D. Pellegrini, Play and Child Development by Joe L. Frost, Sue Clark Wortham and Robert Stuart Reifel, The Role of Pretend Play in Children’s Cognitive Development by Doris Bergen, Curiosity, Imagination, and Play: On the Development of Spontaneous Cognitive Motivational Processes by Dietmar Ed Görlitz and Joachim F. Wohlwill and On the Functions of Play and its Role in Behavioral Development by Paul Martin and Tim M. Caro.

In A Playworker’s Taxonomy of Play Types, Bob Hughes describes the types of play: communication, creative, deep, dramatic, exploratory, fantasy, imaginative, locomotor, mastery, object, recapitulative, role, rough and tumble, social, socio-dramatic and symbolic play. The National Institute for Play describes seven play types: attunement, body, object, social, imaginative, narrative and transformative play.

Publications pertinent to play and symbolic reasoning include: Facilitating Creative Thought through Object Play in Young Children by Susan L. Trostle and Thomas D. Yawkey, Pretend Play and Creative Processes by Sandra W. Russ and Claire E. Wallace, Development of Object Transformations in Early Pretend Play by Elaine R. Jackowitz and Malcolm W. Watson and Preschool Children’s use of Objects in Symbolic Play by Joy L. Elder and David R. Pederson, Play and the Acquisition of Symbols by Greta G. Fein and Toward Symbolic Functioning: Structure of Early Pretend Games and Potential Parallels with Language by Lorraine McCune-Nicolich.

Publications pertinent to play, socialization and language include: The Language of Social Pretend Play by Catherine Garvey and Thayer L. Kramer, The Collaborative Construction of Pretend: Social Pretend Play Functions by Carollee Howes, Olivia A. Unger and Catherine C. Matheson, Some Properties of Social Play by Catherine Garvey and The Social Psychology of Creativity by Teresa M. Amabile.

Publications pertinent to play, mimesis and narrative include: Child’s Play: Myth, Mimesis and Make-believe by Laurence R. Goldman, Mimesis: Where Play and Narrative Meet by Carol Fleisher Feldman, A Developmental Study of Children’s Construction of Stories by Nancy L. Stein and Christine G. Glenn, The Development of Structural Complexity in Children’s Fantasy Narratives by Gilbert J. Botvin and Brian Sutton-Smith, Developmental Structures in Fantasy Narratives by Brian Sutton-Smith, Gilbert J. Botvin and Daniel Mahony and Mimesis as Make-believe: On the Foundations of the Representational Arts by Kendall Walton.

Publications pertinent to play and education include: Play in Education by Joseph Lee, The Role of Play in the Development of Insightful Tool-using Strategies by Brian Vandenberg, Play, Problem‐solving, and Creativity by Brian Vandenberg and Play and Training in Direct and Innovative Problem Solving by Peter K. Smith and Susan Dutton.

Argumentation, Planning and Ethical Reasoning

Computational models of argumentation can facilitate systems which integrate planning and ethical reasoning components, e.g. case-based, and systems which provide rationale for generated plans and courses of action. Such models can be of use for various input and output parameters in the interfaces of planning and ethical reasoning components, in addition to being of use for expressing the resultant rationales of generated plans and courses of action.

Plan rationales are discussed in Rationale in Planning: Causality, Dependencies, and Decisions by Stephen T. Polyak and Austin Tate. Another topic pertinent to argumentation and planning, arguing about plans, is discussed in Arguing about Plans: Plan Representation and Reasoning for Mixed-initiative Planning by George Ferguson and James F. Allen and Rationale-supported Mixed-initiative Case-based Planning by Manuela M. Veloso, Alice M. Mulvehill and Michael T. Cox.

Machine Ethics

Machine ethics, sometimes referred to as computational ethics or computational morality, is an application of automated reasoning and reasoning systems to ethics and to ethical reasoning.

Case-based reasoning, the process of solving new problems utilizing the solutions of similar past problems, storing knowledge in cases, has been of use to the design and development of machine ethics systems.  Case-based reasoning includes the components of: retrieval, given a target problem, retrieving from memory the cases relevant to solving it, reuse, mapping a solution from a previous case to the target problem possibly adapting the solution, revision, testing the new solution, and retention, storing as needed resulting knowledge.  The aforementioned components are described in Case-Based Reasoning: Foundational Issues, Methodological Variations, and System Approaches by Agnar Aamodt and Enric Plaza and Retrieval, Reuse, Revision, and Retention in Case-based Reasoning by Ramon López de Mántaras, David McSherry, Derek Bridge, David Leake, Barry Smyth, Susan Craw, Boi Faltings, Mary Lou Maher, Michael T. Cox, Kenneth Forbus, Mark Keane, Agnar Aamodt and Ian Watson.

Argumentation can enhance each component of case-based reasoning and such uses of argumentation can address many of the criticisms of case-based reasoning and of casuistry.

Argumentation formats can facilitate the exchange of knowledge between systems, reasoning systems, case-based reasoning systems and ethical reasoning systems.  Creating and versioning knowledge representation and interchange formats can enhance the interoperability between systems and can enhance the utility of input data, intermediate computation, and output results.  Case-based reasoning cases can additionally be represented and interchanged with standard formats.

The topics resemble those discussed at the PxTP conferences with regard to automated theorem provers.  Multiple ethical reasoning systems should be constructed and conferences and competitions between ethical reasoning systems should be organized, modeled after the successes of automated theorem proving conferences (CADE and CASC).

Machine ethics, computational ethics, computational morality, technologies are applicable to digital textbook development processes.  Just as automated theorem proving and automated reasoning can generate and verify mathematical proofs and scientific explanations, justifications and arguments for mathematics and science digital textbooks, just as automated reasoning can provide and enhance features for such digital textbooks, computational ethics and argumentation technologies, in general, can generate and verify the explanations, justifications and arguments in and can provide and enhance features for the digital textbooks of a broader set of subjects including character, ethics, philosophy, law and law history.

Digital Textbooks and Curricula

Television and films have literary, cultural and ethical themes, and, while that aspect of culture, of literature, is known well to scholars, American public schools have yet to include ethics curricula.

In addition to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, secular multicultural ethics curricula in American public schools is a topic of interest. Due to numerous legal precedents in the United States, the adjectives secular and multicultural are indicated when describing the niche of public school digital textbooks about morality, ethics, and character. With upcoming transitions to digital textbooks, there has never been as opportune a time for discussions about modernizing American public school curricula.

With regard to curricula, I advocate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics subjects and I advocate the subjects of leadership studies, ethics, and argumentation with other themes including: individualism as opposed to conformity, leadership skills, public speaking skills, video blogging and conferencing skills, social comfort expressing opinion or disagreement, debate and argumentation, including as group processes, which can ensure better summations of moral compasses and that reason prevails.

Townhalls enhance communities and Thomas Jefferson referred to townhalls as “the wisest invention ever devised by the wit of man for the perfect exercise of self-government.” In the past, when American towns had more vibrant townhalls, attendance and participation were as implicit forms of education and, at some point in the past, townhall meetings decreased in use. Our public schools can equip students to make fuller use of their townhalls and Web.

In Finding “The Right Way”: Toward an Army Institutional Ethic, LTC Clark C. Barrett suggests that “the U.S. Army profession’s most worrisome cultural shortcoming is the lack of a codified institutional ethic and a means of peer-to-peer self-governance.” The publication “describes the problem, provides a review of the literature, and supplies and justifies a proposed institutional and individual Army Ethic” ( and indicates a that some ethical lapses indicate “a potentially devastating cultural shortcoming” ( Such observations may be, in fact, societal, extending across sectors, and public school education topics are where solutions to the identified problems can be arrived at.

Digital textbooks discussing ethics can be authored for extended existing courses, such as social studies, or can be authored for new courses, for example based on leadership studies. The curricula and digital textbooks under discussion are not mutually exclusive to any family or community activities and, furthermore, secular and multicultural public school curricula on the topics of morality, ethics and character can start conversations in homes whenever parents ask their children about how their schooldays went. An inclusive competition to create digital textbooks, as aforementioned, in accordance with the laws and court precedents of the United States, for state and local public school schoolboard selection processes, can effectively commence.

To the broader topics of education technology and digital textbooks, in general, some other discussion topics include: capitalist marketplace, digital textbook selection processes (, consumer feedback, and consumer advocacy. With the Web, new forms of consumer feedback and advocacy are possible (,; I recently wrote to several consumer advocacy groups about how consumer advocacy groups could each independently spider, index, utilize, and make available on their websites blog articles and tweets with certain keywords or folksonomic tags, e.g. “bbb” or “#bbb”.

Additionally, new blogging platform features can facilitate pinging organizations, per article ( Consumers’, parents’, teachers’, and scholars’ commentary, feedback, and opinion, about digital textbooks and curricula could be specifically routed, as indicated by each blogger, empowering bloggers and adding value to numerous organizations’ websites including those of consumer advocacy groups, teachers’ and other education-related organizations.

Teachers encounter digital textbooks occupationally and a policy topic, Garcetti v. Ceballos, 547 U.S. 410 (2006), is discussed by the American Association of University Professors at: . Legislation can and should be enacted to ensure and affirm academic freedoms, freedom of speech, including, specifically, professors’ and K-12 educators’ extramural free speech when commenting on, discussing, applauding or criticizing portions of digital textbook content, curricula, and other education-related topics, for example on their blogs, as protected free speech. In addition to addressing Garcetti v. Ceballos, and in addition to restoring or enhancing the Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989, the federal government can and should seek to ensure and affirm that extramural discussion of textbooks and curricula by teachers is protected free speech.

Combinations of parents’, teachers’, scholars’ and scientists’ commentary, feedback and opinion about the digital textbooks and curricula of each course of study can be spidered, indexed, utilized, and presented on the Web. While hyperlinks can be of use for opening digital textbooks to specific pages and object configurations, some bloggers might want to additionally make use of quotes or multimedia clips on their blogs during fair use scenarios.

With the advancements from textbooks to digital textbooks, there are, in addition to text content topics, hypertext content topics, multimedia content topics, video content topics, and, if textbook production teams want to include interviews with people, additional sociological and political topics. Uses of video in digital textbooks include: the reading of or the narration of hypertext passages, educational video content resembling educational television segments, scenarios with actors doing group sketches for classroom discussions and interviews with people or groups of people from society relaying their observations or wisdom, including scholars.

With regard to sketches for classroom discussion, we can anticipate correlations between such classroom activities and other important sociological skills as students observe, consider and discuss the behaviors of people in depicted situations.

With regard to interviews and panel discussions, we can observe that a sociology of celebrity or politics of celebrity has existed since before radio and television. Some have commented about which guests have appeared on television news shows and we can observe that a subset of all possible guests have appeared on the History Channel. With digital textbooks, however, each of numerous production teams can choose whom they would like to interview and each interviewee can choose with which production teams they would like to participate. In my opinion, exploring the breadth of society for such interviews would result in higher quality digital textbooks. People from all walks of life can be interviewed: businesspeople, scholars, scientists, policemen, firemen, military personnel, from accountants to zoologists.

Multimedia digital textbooks, containing hypertext, video and 3D graphics, could be larger in size, possibly 50, 100, 128 or more gigabytes in size, resembling the capacities of Blu-ray discs. Additionally, digital textbooks can hyperlink to Web content. With bonus materials, independent learning materials, hyperlinked to Web content, and other supplemental content and materials, including for teachers, the total content per digital textbook product can be much more than can fit into the total classroom time of an academic quarter or semester.

Future Americans, skeptical, critical thinking Americans, will reason about matters of their day, matters of importance including morality and ethics, individually and in groups, will speak and assemble freely, engage in civil discourse, argue and debate with one another and in new ways utilizing technology, utilizing the Web.

With upcoming technologies, we can expect empowered communities, consumers, parents, and teachers, and enhanced educational systems. With the new topics of multimedia and video with digital textbooks, capitalist marketplace, digital textbook selection processes, consumer feedback, and consumer advocacy are posited to ensure numerous competitive, quality options for empowering, equipping and enhancing communities, consumers, parents, teachers and educational systems.